QSWiki > Quantity Surveying 工料测量 > Tender Documentation 编写招标文件 > Bills of Quantities 工程量清单 >

Preparation upon Commencement of Production of Bills of Quantities 编写工程量清单前的准备

1. Forming a team 组建小组

  1. Each project should have a Project-in-charge.
    每一個项目都应有一個项目负责人。

  2. The Project-in-charge should be, depending on the level of delegation of authority, a Director, Associate Director, Assistant Director, Partner or Associate of the QS firm.
    视乎获授权的程度,项目负责人应为工料測量师事务所的董事、副董事、助理董事、合伙人或副合伙人。

  3. The Project-in-charge should:
    项目负责人应:

    1. estimate the human resources and time required;
      估计所需人手及时间;

    2. appoint team members; and
      指派人选;

    3. appoint a team leader.
      选定组长。

  4. The team leader should:
    组长应:

    1. be an experienced surveyor;
      为一个有经验的測量师;

    2. liaise with the Client and the Designers;
      与发包方及设计方保持联系;

    3. understand the requirements of the Works;
      了解工程要求;

    4. understand the time arrangement; and
      了解时间安排;

    5. obtain the drawings.
      取得图纸。

  5. The other team members should be surveyors or assistant surveyors of suitable grades.
    组员应为适当级别的測量师或測量技术员。

2. Briefing meeting 交底会

  1. A briefing meeting should be held when the major drawings are sufficient enough to enable production work to commence.
    主要图纸齐备,可以开工,便要举行交底会。

  2. The meeting should be chaired by the Project-in-charge.
    应由项目负责人主持交底会。

  3. The appointed team members should attend.
    选定的编标小组成员应叁加。

  4. To discuss and clarify the following matters:
    讨论及明确下列事情:

    1. Scope of measurement;
      计算的范围;

    2. Method of measurement and Preambles;
      工程量计算规则及清单说明;

    3. Bills and trades classification;
      分部清单的划分;

    4. Drawings and Specification;
      图纸及规范;

    5. Staff allocation; and
      人手分配;

    6. BQ production programme.
      编标计划进度表。

  5. People who join the team later may be briefed by the team leader.
    较后加入的组员,可由组长指导。

3. Scope of measurement 计算的范围

  1. The scope of measurement required for the Bills of Quantities should be clarified:
    应明确工程量清单所需计算的范围:

    1. Extent of previous contracts, such as piling contract, site formation contract;
      已完成工程的范围,例如打桩、场地平整等;

    2. Items to be covered by prime cost rates;
      采用暂定单价的项目;

    3. Items to be covered by prime cost sums to be supplied by Nominated Suppliers or carried out by Nominated Sub-Contractors;
      由指定供货商供应的物料及指定分包方负责执行的工程;

    4. Goods to be supplied by the Employer;
      由发包方供应的物料;

    5. Items to be carried out by others, such as landlords, tenants, Government Authorities, Public Utility Companies, etc.; and
      由其他人负责执行的工程,例如大业主、租户、政府机关、市政单位、等;

    6. Items to be measured provisional because of insufficient drawings, e.g. reinforcement.
      因图纸不全要以暂定工程量代表的项目,例如钢筋。

4. Method of measurement and Preambles 工程量计算规则及清单说明

  1. Identify which version to be used of:
    确定采用那套:

    1. Standard Method of Measurement; and
      标准的工程量计算规则;

    2. Standard Office Preambles.
      公司的标准清单说明。

  2. Discuss and identify any deviations from the SMM to suit the special nature of the project.
    讨论及确定为适应本项目特性而要与标准的工程量计算规则的偏离。

  3. The deviations may be standard within the office or may be specially devised for the project.
    偏离可能是公司的标准或是为本项目特定的。

  4. The Standard Office Preambles should be referred to for the standard deviations.
    公司的标准偏离可参考公司的标准清单说明。

  5. Special deviations should be written into the Standard Office Preambles to form the Project Preambles.
    为本项目特定的偏离应写进公司的标准清单说明内,变为本项目的清单说明。

  6. Special deviations may also be found necessary during the course of BQ production.
    偏标过程中也可能发觉需要特殊的变离。

5. Bills and trades classification 分部清单的划分

  1. How the Works to be measured are to be divided into Bills and Trades should be discussed and clarified, e.g.
    确定如何划分,例如:

    1. by buildings and parts of a building, e.g. Substructure or Basement, Podium, Tower 1, Tower 2, Drainage, External Works; and
      按楼房及其分部,例如基础或地下室、群楼、1号塔楼、2号塔楼、地下排水、外围;

    2. then by work sections, e.g. piling, excavation, concrete work, blockwork, finishes, plumbing.
      按工程分部,例如打桩、混凝土、砌体、装饰、地上给排水。

  2. For projects where various cost centres are used, the Bills may be divided accordingly for cost control purposes.
    需要划分不同的成本核算中心的项目,清单可能亦需要相应划分,以便成本控制。

  3. For projects which break down the Works into activities for programme and cost control purposes, the Bills may be divided into activities.
    需要把工程按工序划分以便控制进度和成本的项目,清单可能需要按工序划分。

  4. The divisions should facilitate:
    应利于:

    1. bulk-checking;
      复核;

    2. payment valuations using simple percentages based on visual progress;
      按形象进度打简单比例计算进度款;

    3. cost monitoring and control, such as by cost centres; and
      造价跟踪及控制,例如成本核算中心;

    4. cost analysis.
      造价指标含量分析。

  5. If all quantities of the Works are lumped together without suitable divisions:
    若没有适当的划分:

    1. the use of Bills of Quantities will be greatly diminished.
      工程量清单的用处大大减少。

6. Nomenclatures 用词

  1. "Substructure" generally includes all work up to the structural top levels of the lowest floor slabs, but excludes floor finishes thereon.
    "基础" 一般包含最底层地板结构面标高以下的所有工作,但不包括该地板面饰面。

  2. "Superstructure" generally includes all works above the structural top levels of the lowest floor slabs, and includes floor finishes thereon.
    "上盖结构" 一般包含最底层地板结构面标高以上的所有工作,包括该地板面饰面。

  3. "Lowest floor slabs" means the lowest floor slab at a particular location:
    "最底层地板" 意指在某位置的最底层地板:

    1. Ground floor slabs will generally be the lowest floor slabs in the absence of a basement;
      一般来说,若没有地下室,首层地板便是最底层地板;

    2. The bottom slab of basement will be the lowest floor slab;
      地下室的底板便是最底层地板;

    3. The lowest floor slabs may not necessarily be of the same level; they may have different levels; and
      最底层地板的标高不一定是完全一样,它们可能有不同的标高;

    4. Walls and columns between two adjacent lowest floor slabs at different levels should be regarded as part of the Substructure while the walls and columns above the higher of the two lowest floor slabs should be regarded as part of the Superstructure.
      相连但标高不同的两块最底层地板之间的墙及柱应归入基础,而高于该两块底层地板的墙及柱应归入上盖结构。

  4. "Basement" generally includes all works above the Substructure up to the structural top levels of basement top slabs, and includes all architectural works inside the basement.
    "地下室" 一般包含基础之上到地下室顶板面标高的所有工作,包括地下室内的建筑工作。

  5. "Podium" generally includes all works above the Substructure or Basement up to the structural top level of the podium roof, and includes all architectural works inside the podium and all external wall finishes, roofing, landscaping, parapets and minor structures on the podium roof, but excludes the floor finishes within the footprint of the tower blocks.
    "群房" 一般包含基础或地下室之上到群房顶板结构面标高的所有工作,包括群房内的建筑工作、外墙饰面、屋面层、屋面的绿化、女儿墙及小型构筑物。

  6. "Tower" generally includes all works of the tower blocks above the Podium and includes the floor finishes within the footprint of the tower blocks.
    "塔楼" 一般包含群楼之上塔楼的所有工作,包括塔楼脚印以内的楼面饰面。

  7. Reinforcement starter bars are generally included in the sections from which they project.
    钢筋的插筋一般归入它们预埋的部位。

  8. According to the Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works, the "Plumber" or "Plumbing" trade includes all water supply, rainwater, soil and waste disposal work above ground, while the "Drainlayer" or "Drainage" trade includes all surface water drainage, stormwater and soil and waste drainage underground. Engineers usually call rainwater, soil and waste disposal works above ground as "drainage" as well. To distinguish, the terms "Above-ground drainage" and "Underground drainage" are used. In Bills of Quantities, the Plumber trade is usually given separately under the Basement, Podium and Tower Bills. Since the Drainlayer trade is common to the buildings, it is usual to put it as a separate bill as the Drainage Bill for the underground drainage. Independent surface water channels are usually billed under the Drainage Bill. Surface water channels formed in concrete slabs or roads and pavings are usually billed with the concrete slabs or roads and pavings as extra over items.
    跟据标准的工程量计算规则, "水管工程"这工种在英语包含地上的给水、排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作,而"渠务工程" 这工种包含地面排水、地下的排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作。工程师通常把地上的排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作亦称为地下的排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作。

  9. "Plumbing" according to the Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works includes all water supply, rainwater, soil and waste disposal works above ground.

  10. "External Works" include all works outside the buildings, and may include works outside the site. If the footprint of the basement is larger than the podium, the additional covering on top of the basement top slabs will usually be grouped under the External Works.

7. Drawings and Specification 图纸及规范

8. Staff allocation 人手分配

  1. The overall time allowed for the production of the BQ should be clarified. The time when the Drawings and Specification will be provided by the Architects and Engineers should be noted.
    明确出标日期。
    讨论交接安排。
    讨论要多少人。
    讨论预定工时。

  2. Within the allowable time frame, the number of working days or hours to complete the BQ production should be estimated so that the size of the team can be established.
  3. The Works are generally divided into the following groups for measurement by separate people:
    讨论如何分工:

    1. Excavation and structure including reinforcement;
      土方及结构;

    2. Internal, external and roof finishes;
      内外装饰;

    3. Non-structural walls and partitions;
      隔断;

    4. Fittings and sundries;
      家具装置;

    5. Plumbing and drainage;
      给排水;

    6. Fire services;
      消防;

    7. Electrical installation;
      电气;

    8. Air-conditioning installation; and
      空调;及

    9. External Works.
      室外总体。

  4. The first two items above will be the most time consuming, and should be started as early as possible. For bigger projects, each of these items may be shared by more than one Surveyor.
  5. Non-structural walls and partitions should preferably be measured by the same Surveyor measuring finishes because of his familiarity with the layout and dimensions.
  6. More experienced Surveyors should handle fittings and external works.
  7. A team of 4 Surveyors should be the normal team size for a multi-storey single block of building.
  8. Housing estates with huge podium and extensive external works may need 8 to 10 Surveyors.

9. BQ production programme 编标计划进度表

  1. Having established the team size, a BQ production programme should be drawn up either in bar chart or in a table form to show the allocation of work amongst the team members and the time frame allowed.
    按交底会讨论画出。

  2. The programme should indicate the times allowed for taking-off and other activities after taking-off such as editing, bulk-checking, correction and printing.
    表示个人计量时间外。
    还要预留编辑、复核、更正、打印、复印的时间。

  3. Critical dates for receipt of outstanding information should also be shown.
    表示关键的取图纸、出标日期。

  4. The programme should be reviewed regularly against the actual progress to identify any slippage and remedial actions taken to cope.
    定期检讨进度,追索资料,调动人手。

Sample Format 格式例:

Project Name
项目名称

BQ Production Programme
编标计划进度表

Contract Name
合同名称

Week

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Staff
人员

Last Drawings
最后图纸

Tender Out
出标

Excavation and Structure
土方及结构

Peter

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

B

Finishes
内外装饰

Paul

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

B

Partitions
隔断

Mary

T

T

T

T

B

Fittings
家具装置

Mary

T

T

T

T

B

Plumbing and Drainage
给排水

George

T

T

T

T

B

Fire Services
消防

George

T

T

T

T

B

Electrical
电气

Ann

T

T

T

T

T

T

B

Air-conditioning
空调

Ivan

T

T

T

T

T

T

B

External Works
室外总体

Charles

T

T

T

T

T

B

Edit
审核

All
全组

E

E

Correct
更正

All
全组

C

C

Print
印刷

P

T = Take-off, B = Bill, E = Edit, C = Correct, P = Print

BQPreStart (last edited 2014-02-25 08:22:36 by KCTang)